Useful Information

The phenomenon we call humidity (moisture) in our daily life is the water found in air in the form of vapor.

New conditions formed upon changes to the construction techniques, differentiation of human lives and, developments of industries at the beginning of the 20th century revealed the damages caused by perspiration in constructions. Since materials with low absorbing capacity such as small stones, bricks, limes, plasters etc. were used in old structures, there were no layer preventing transmission of water vapor from inside to outside and, water vapor was mixed outside without causing any perspiration. However, the buildings are now construed by means of modern methods, where the walls loss the carriage duty, become thin and, their resistances to heat transmission were significantly reduced.

Walls started to be made in layers and, heat insulation materials started to be used in order to increase the resistance to heat transmission and, prevent perspiration in the inner surface. However, there may be blisters, cracks and molding due to perspiration in case of misapplications and lack of precautions that should have been properly taken.

Vapor proof coating materials used on the external walls to protect the building from external effects such as mosaic, ceramic, glass etc. cause water vapor from inside to outside to be condensed in the wall, causing cracks, blisters, color changing etc. in coatings.

This proves that room ventilation is not sufficient under the modern construction conditions and, causes moisture in air to be kept at high levels.

The most important cause for moisture in buildings arises from the diversity of living functions. Cooking, laundering, drying, wiping the floors, cleaning the windows, water heating, ironing, watering the flowers etc. are the sources producing moisture.

For example, moisture produced in 1 hour:

Laundering                                                        300gram/saat

Drying                                                                 500gram/saat

Cooking                                                              1000gram/saat

Wiping the floors                                              1000gram/saat

Showering                                                         2600gram/saat

Breathing of a man at rest                             40-50gram/saat

Breathing of a man mildly working              70-80gram/saat

In addition:

Through skin and breathing of a man asleep                   1000gram su buharı üretir.

Gaseous fuels mostly used at home (liquid gases, town gases and natural gases) produce significant amount of water vapor during combustion. A person starts to feel uncomfortable when the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in air is 0,1%. A person turns 4% of the air volume breathed into carbon dioxide. Considering this, it is obvious that a house must be well ventilated.


There is maximum amount of water that may be held by air in a house at the lowest and the highest temperatures.

temperature °C max.water gr/m3 sıcaklık °C Max.su gr/m3

-20                     0,08                         5                 6,79

-10                     2,14                         10                 9,39

-5                     3,25                         15                 12,84

0                     4,84                         20                 17,29


The lower the air temperature is, the less amount of water vapor that the air could hold.

In addition to temperature, moisture rate is another important factors for perspiration. If there is large quantity of water vapor in the air, perspiration occurs when the air hits a surface with such temperature less than that in the room.

- If the room temperature is 20°C and the moisture rate in the room is 95%, then perspiration starts to occur when the temperature of the glass surface is 19°C.

However, when the moisture rate is low in the room with the same temperature, i.e.:

- If the room temperature is 20°C and the moisture rate in the room is 60%, then perspiration starts to occur when the temperature of the glass surface is 12°C.

That means, keeping the moisture rate in the room low is an important factor to prevent perspiration.

According to scientific data, the moisture values of a room with 18°C to 20°C:

-if less than 50%, it is considered Dry

-if between 50% and 50%, it is considered Normal

-if between 60% and 75%, it is considered Moist

-if more than 75%, it is considered Wet

Another phenomenon similar to perspiration in a house:

It is observed that condensation will gradually disappear when the temperature of the internal surface of the glasses in a car exposed to cold in the winter is increased by breathing of the passengers causing sufficient amount of moisture in the air.


Moisture may occur at the edges of the external walls near to the location where the window is connected to the wall when the single glass wooden windows are replaced with PIMAPEN.

There is no gasket between the frame and the sash in wooden windows. Due to the structure of the window, natural ventilation always happens, hot air containing surplus amount of water vapor goes outside and, cold and moisture-free air comes inside. In addition, in a room, where there is one single glass wooden window, the coldest place is only the glass surface, where the vapor is first condensed. In this manner, use of a piece of clothes to wipe the vapor condensed on the glass will prevent vapor from being condensed in somewhere else.

Rubber gaskets between the frame and the sash in Pimapen windows provides insulation of heat, air, water, dust and noise. These gaskets decrease the possibility of discharging the moisture outside with air flow. In addition, since the inner surface of the double glass will not be cold, condensation will happen on the joint of the window and the wall and, on the wall itself not on the glass surface. To prevent this, both sashes should be opened at least two times in a day to regularly ventilate the room. It is an advantage from PIMAPEN that the room may be periodically ventilated at such times desired under the control of the user.

Further, ventilation is important not only for balancing the moisture rate but also providing fresh air needed for health.

TO PREVENT PERSPIRATION

• The largest source that produce water vapor in a house is the kitchen. Water vapor caused by cooking in the kitchen must be removed by means of stove hoods and chimneys.
• Wet locations such as bathrooms, WC’s must be ventilated through a windows after use.
• The doors of wet locations such as kitchens, bathrooms must be kept closed to prevent the moisture from spreading to other locations of the house.
• Each room of the house must be between 18°C to 20°C, and the surface temperature should be increased by adding heat insulation to the walls, if necessary.
• Wet clothes should never be dried in the house, if there is no other option, they should be dried in the bathroom with the window open and, the door closed.
• The rooms should be at the same temperature (18°C to 20°C) in a house with heated by a stove. The room doors should be always kept open to ensure the temperature is spread equally and, more than one stove should be used if necessary.
• Since heaters such as gas stoves, catalytic heaters cause excessive amount of water vapor, room heaters and heaters with central heating boilers should be preferred in all rooms.
• Don’t put teapots, clothes etc. on stoves and electric heaters and, they shouldn’t be used to heat water.
• Ventilation period should be increased if there are many flowers and aquariums in the house.
• When the glasses, floor etc. are cleaned with wet clothes, keep the room ventilated until the locations cleaned are completely dried.
• All the rooms of the house should be ventilated by opening the sashes in the morning-evening.